Loftus, E. F., & Palmer, J. C. (1974). Reconstruction of automobile destruction: An example of the interaction between language and memory.Journal of verbal learning and verbal behavior, 13(5), 585-589.
This is the classic cognitive psychology study which you will look at for your H167 AS OCR Psychology exam. You will also need this study for your OCR H567 A Level Psychology core studies exam.
The theme of the cognitive psychology studies in the H167 exam is memory. This study by Loftus and Palmer (1974) focuses on an applied area of memory: eyewitness testimony.
In order to best understand this study, it is highly recommended that you first read the following books written by Elizabeth Loftus:
Continue reading Loftus and Palmer (1974) – Eyewitness Testimony
Milgram, S. (1963). Behavioral study of obedience. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67, 371-378.
This study was published in the Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology in 1963.
Obedience is common element found in everyday life. From obeying teachers in school, policemen on the roads, to safety signs. We obey all the time, often blindly.
It is highly recommended that you read Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View in order to get a better understanding of the material.
Milgram was interested in understanding how Nazi SS Officers and soldiers could commit the atrocities they did in the Holocaust. Milgram reasoned that there wasn’t a group of people who shared a common goal through free will, but a group of people who obeyed a common goal through successive obedience: Hitler sends his orders, his subordinates obey, their subordinates obey and so on. Milgram theorised that it was the social situation that caused ‘normal’ people to kill millions of innocent people.
Continue reading Milgram (1963) – Obedience to Authority
Watson, J. B. and Rayner, R. (1920) ‘Conditioned emotional reaction’, Journal of Experimental Psychology 3, 1–14
This is the second study we will be looking at from the ‘Explanations of Dysfunctional Behaviour’ section of ‘Dysfunctional Behaviour’, as part of your OCR A2 Health and Clinical Psychology course. It is further categorised into ‘Behavioural.‘
This is one of the most well-known studies in the history of psychology. As the perspective of this study is behaviourist, it is high recommended that you read: About Behaviorism by B.F. Skinner.
Continue reading Watson and Rayner (1920) Little Albert – Behavioural
Asch, S. E. (1955) ‘Opinions and Social Pressure’, Scientific American 193 (5), 31-5.
This is the second study we will be looking at from the ‘reaching a verdict’ section of ‘reaching a verdict’, as part of your OCR A2 Forensic Psychology course. It is further categorised into ‘Majority Influence‘
In this classic social psychology experiment Solomon Asch looked at conformity: particularly the influence of the majority on the minority.
This is one of the most influential and well-known studies in Psychology. It looks at conformity, which of course means that this study was conducted from a Social Psychological perspective. However, as this is from the Forensic Section of your OCR A2 Psychology exam, then we need to consider it from a forensic perspective. In this case how to do juries come to either a unanimous or majority decision.
Continue reading Asch (1955) – Opinions and Social Pressure – Conformity Experiment